Indian education system


The Indian education system has many problems and issues. challenge levels of education, from central to higher education, are overseen by the Department of Higher Education and the Department of School Education and Literacy. The Indian government has also heavily invested the education, although there is an initiative or ambition to formulate the higher education partly self-financing.

Indian education system/Increasing completion in education

The Indian Education System has various stages such as the Nursery, the Primary, the Secondary, the Higher Secondary, the Graduation, and the Post Graduation.



Primary Education

Primary and Middle (lower primary (Standards I to V) and upper primary (Standards VI to VIII)) education is mandatory and independent in India. Primary education starts at age 6 with Middle/Upper Primary school education expiring at age 14. Schooling is required at state-run and special schools, yet, private schools constantly have poorer capacities and infrastructure than government schools. The limited language is the tool of instruction for maximum primary schools and English as a second language naturally starts up by grade 3.

Secondary Education

Secondary education starts in grade 9 and remains until grade 12. The secondary phase is broken into two, two-year cycles, naturally related to as General/Lower Secondary School, or ‘Standard X’, and Upper/Senior Secondary School, or ‘Standard XII’. Education proceeds to be unrestricted at government schools, although private education is extra popular at the secondary level. Public examinations are carried at the edge of both processes and grant entry to grade 11 and college-level study respectively. Major curriculum for needle secondary school in India consists of three languages or speeches Mathematics, Science and Technology, Social Sciences, Work/Pre-Vocational Education, Art, and Biological Education. Secondary schools are affiliated with Central or State councils which distribute the Secondary School Certificate at the limit of grade 10.

Based upon performance in the initial two years of secondary school, and upon the SSC results, students may enter Senior/Upper Secondary School. Upper Secondary School requires the students a possibility to select a ‘stream’ or engagement of study, assistance science, commerce, and arts/humanities. Education is conducted both in schools or two-year junior colleges which are constantly affiliated with degree conferring universities or colleges. Curriculum for the Higher Secondary Certificate Examination is specified by the boards of secondary education.

Although the HSCE is the greatly famous Standard XII examination, the All India Senior School Certificate (CBSE), Indian School Certificate, Certificate of Vocational Education (CISCE), Senior Secondary Certification (NIOS), Intermediate Certificate and the Pre-University Certificate are also recommended.

Vocational Education

Youthful people who do not wish to go on to tertiary education, or who fail to finish secondary school often recruit at privately-owned vocational schools that labour in only one or only a few courses. Unlike in the United States, vocational and technical education is not highly specialized and is somewhat an enormous synopsis of awareness favourable to employment.

The curriculum requested is comprised up of a vocabulary course, organization courses, and electives, of which partner of electives are practical in nature. Examinations at the edge of vocational education are completed by the All India and State Boards of Vocational Education.

Tertiary Education

India’s higher education system is highly centralized and undergoing large modifications since its advent in 1947. Mostly based upon the British system of education, educational policy is ever-developing.

University education is governed by the University Grants Commission (UGC), which is accountable for the advancement of higher education, administering reserves, and distinction of institutions in India.

The National Accreditation and Assessment Council (NAAC) was founded by the UGC to analyze universities and college founded upon an alphabetical ranking system wandering from A++ to C. The inquiry and Accreditation are broadly utilized for appreciating the Quality Status of an establishment and suggests that the regional institution joins the norms of disposition as set by the NAAC.

 Indian education system , Increasing competition in education

Participation in the accreditation technique of NAAC is natural.

The All-India Council of Technical Education (AICTE) was also established to regulate climate restraint of technical education and regulate society of new private professional colleges. All acknowledged universities are components of the Association of Indian Universities (AIU), which is essential to the dissemination of knowledge and assists as a counsel to the government, UGC, and the institutions themselves.

There are numerous categories of tertiary institutions in India, scilicet Universities (Central, State, Open), Universities of National Importance, and Deemed universities. Education of the prevalence of students, approximately 80%, is finished at corresponding colleges with the curriculum, examinations, and final degree being formulated and approved of by the university. Constituent and Autonomous universities also contain; though less familiar although they do enjoy enormous independence in esteem to curriculum advancement and appraisal.



The history of Indian education has its origins to the historical ages where they attended the Gurukul system – a system where the students lived in the house of their instructor or teachers until the teacher felt that he has imparted all that he could. The subjects taught varied from Sanskrit to Scriptures to Mathematics to Metaphysics and the proficiency fulfilled would be ratified on to the future generations. Still, this system was shifted during the Colonial era when the British setup schools that attended a curriculum restricted to subjects such as Mathematics, Science etc. Extent the ancient system contained additional interchange with the essence, the modern system was better classroom trained.

History of Indian education system

The history of education beginnings or starts with the education of basic components dominant as Indian religions, Indian mathematics, Indian logic at early Hindu and Buddhist centres of memorizing incredibly as ancient Takshashila (in modern-day Pakistan) and Nalanda (in India) before the civil period.

Islamic education/ Indian education system

Islamic education evolved infused with the organization of the Islamic empires in the Indian subcontinent in the Middle Ages while the appearance of the Europeans later took western education to colonial India.

Original Universities were founded during British law in the 19th century. A sequence of quantities proceeding throughout the fast half of the 20th century finally put the institution of education in the Republic of India, Pakistan and vastly of the Indian subcontinent.


Thee education systems in India and the US differ where rules and regulations are apprehensive distant from the prevailing strategy towards knowledge. What seriously amazed me in the US was how every child’s hopes and fantasies are regarded and he or she is encouraged at every rung to realise a concept that will ultimately direct to the emergence of our next-generation administrators. Indian schools’ main priority is to stereotype students according to the careers in the industry.

The indian education systems in India and the US differ where rules and regulations are apprehensive distant from the prevailing strategy towards knowledge.

Straight from the main year of high school, students joining the ninth grade are authorized to prefer a torrent of research and/or a particular content which will conclude electives throughout high school. In the US, students are also encouraged to partake in recreations outside school like photography and dancing. They also retain access to after-school clubs and organisations joining learners with mutual interests.

In India, traditional methods confirm that students avoid distractions, and direct on studies. But, on the other side, Maths, Science and engineering are unnecessarily emphasized upon, guiding to a low motivation in some students extremely when individual aspirations are rejected. On the positive side, India has produced numerous scientists, engineers, CEOs and mathematicians who are now prosperous all over the planet license to the government ’s high standards of wisdom.

In Indian schools, credits in class and grades are declared, which constantly has a negative impact on some students, who may not be the biggest. In US schools, ratings are always protected private.

US schools look after the hygiene aspect as well as comfort for students. All students are allotted into minorities for lunch and eat in a thoughtful environment in the cafeteria.

Indian education system is nowadays in a bad condition but the history education is amazing
Restrooms are cleaned perennial, and classrooms are air-conditioned. Further, only students staying within a distinct radius of a bestowed school get admission to make roaming limited of a nuisance for parents and pupils.

Perhaps the most striking distinction between schools in the two provinces is the independence permitted in the US. There is no costume. Rather, students may chafe whatever they prefer, as long as they fasten to a certain dress code. I feel schools in India and the US have their own preferences and legislation, but both fulfil wonderful administrations to inform youngsters to the biggest of their capacities.


Major Challenges:

The government’s education expenditure as a percentage of GDP has never ever increased above 4.3% of GDP, despite the mark of 6% amassing existed set as far behind as 1968 by the Kothari Commission. The country’s education strategy throws out millions of graduate every year but

The main challenges before the Government are:-

1. Enhancing access and integrity at all categories of education

2.Increasing allotment in higher education

3.Improving Infrastructure

4.Improving Administration

5.Improving literacy rates

6.Universalization of basic education

Despite undertakings to comprise all categories of the community into the Indian education system, through numerous programmes and techniques, large numbers of young people are still without schooling.

It is true that roster in elementary education has improved (at least 35 million) but as several as 60 millions of kids under the age group 6–14 years are still far from the school.

One of the main difficulties is the non-availability of schools within an acceptable distance. Many remote regions of the country remember no educational academy at all. This drawback should be overcome to enhance the education system of the province.

Improving the excellence of education is another challenge before the government to achieve at the target. The quality should get international recognition in words of the efficacy of teaching, attainment level of the students, availability of reasonable instructors etc.

Other challenges are ineffective school infrastructure, high teacher-student absenteeism, auge number of teacher opportunities, poor quality of education and inadequate reserves.

Additional groups of children ‘at harm ’, such as orphan labourers about street kids and victims of violence and natural crises, do not certainly have entry to colleges.

To increase the literacy rate, all sections of the society will have to know the integrity of teaching and hence should come forward to expand the Indian education system.


The major issues and challenges of the-

1. Expenditure on education
2. Gross enrolment pattern
3. Capacity utilisation
4. Infrastructure facilities
5. PPP model
6. Student-teacher ratio
7. Accreditation and branding

Future of Indian Education System: A Prediction

Future of Indian education system

Future is uncertain, still one can predict it. If we discuss the future policy of Indian education it is no minor encouraging. The way, in which the reformation in the education region is existing achieved, no question the education scenario of the nation, will change very soon. Commencing from the primary education system, the government is now carrying numerous walks to universalize the primary education in the country. Various non-government organizations (NGOs) have moreover come forward to engage the commotion.

At the higher educational level, considerable alterations retain taken a position in the system. In the ahead few years, the scientific and technological developments in the country have got global compassion. The future of Indian education system may be summarized on the hereafter lines:

Future of  Indian education system will be extraordinary.

•Role of education in future will be dynamic.

•Focus will be on technical and experienced education.

•Barriers in bringing integrated education will be reduced.

•Education will be based on society’s regulations.

•Present deformities of our Indian education system will be overcome.

•A unique kind of Indian learner will follow in future.

Indian Education System especially follows the policy laid by the British. Although we can ramble of possessing the IITs, IIMs and some of the promising constitution and medical colleges, India’s contribution to the world of creation is near to none. Our Indian education system should hence focus on churning out not just engineers, but moreover, entrepreneurs, artists, scientists, writers etc. all of whom are powerful in the growth of the economy.

As India grieves for the death of one of its greatest predictors, Dr Abdul Kalam, there is a need to promote is a view about the Indian Education System: “In decades period, India will require 300 to 500 million employable qualified youth and there’s a desire to entirely improve the university education syllabus and secondary school education syllabus”.


For centuries, India has been a leading centre for learning and many famous universities existed here. Even today, the country has some of the biggest Universities in the world. Moreover, it is also facing many challenges in its fundamental education while seeking to reach 100% literacy. Across the Universal Compulsory Primary Education, protecting the quality of education in country areas has been tough.


Kerala is the merely Indian state to fulfil this goal.

Author: Anamika


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